Andres J. Washington
Fingerprint Geometric Analysis


The Fingerprints of Malcolm X

History tells us that Malcolm X encompassed an elevated mental manifestation.  In juxtaposition, the frequency of his fingerprint patterns and dermal ridge configurations were apart from the expected display of the average individual.  This is a significant event in dermatoglyphics, a unique phenomenon!  If we were to discover a similar pattern frequency and/or ridge structure upon the hands of another individual, we could say that the person in question maintains a potential for astuteness, as did Malcolm X.  The fingerprint patterns that we possess are a result of our genetic make-up, this is because fingerprints are a byproduct of the human evolutionary cycle.   In reference to the evolution of fingerprint patterns, the ulnar loop resides midway between the whorl (the first pattern to appear on the person of individuals) and the arch (that which was last).

The right thumb impression of Malcolm was a horizontal radial loop.  In other words, the ridges enter and exit in the direction of the radius bone.  Two variables which influence the display of a given pattern are gender and racial stock.  However, considering the above and all other known variables, radial loops have failed to provide a display on the aforementioned digit (for the male population) at frequencies higher than 0.438 percent

 Malcolm X


Malcolm’s left index fingerprint was also a horizontal radial loop.  The radial loop is a minority pattern in so much as the definition can be understood.  Its counterpart, the ulnar loop, maintains the highest frequency among all other patterns. Further, the discovery of a horizontal radial 1oop upon the person of another individual has been infrequently noted in my thirty-five years of study.  Most loop patterns are diagonal in appearance.


It is noteworthy however to mention that the February 1983 issue of the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin displayed a horizontal loop pattern on the back cover.  It was described as interesting and unusual.  


Malcolm also displayed variety in the distribution of his fingerprints.  Most individu­als display patterns that are consistent with the patterns of the neighbor­ing digits.  In noting the three basic patterns, arch, loop, and the whorl, no particular pattern dominates in Malcolm’s overall display. 

Notwithstanding, the right ring finger of Malcolm displayed a central pocket loop type whorl pattern.  The frequency for this pattern to appear on the right ring finger is approximately 8.8 percent.  And it was the only whorl pattern in the ten set. 


Under the original rules for classifying fingerprints according to the Henry System of Fingerprint Classification and Filing, we would conclude that Malcolm had three plain arch patterns which were displayed on the right index, right middle and the left thumb.  However, under revised rules for classification, the right middle finger impression is classified as a tented arch pattern (technical).  A technical tented arch is a pattern that has two of the three requirements necessary to be considered a loop pattern.

This pattern (#3) had a delta and a core but did not display a recurving ridge in front of the delta.  I have not seen a study to include the frequency of technical tented arches on the right middle finger.  In reference to the classic tented arch, it's frequency on the right middle is close to the 3 percent margin.


The breakdown on the combination of fingerprint patterns for Malcolm X was the following:


Four Ulnar Loop patterns (# 5, 8, 9 and 10)

Two Plain Arch patterns (# 2 and 6)

One Tented Arch pattern (# 3)

Two Radial Loop patterns (# 1 and 7)

One Central Pocket Loop Type Whorl pattern (# 4)

An extraordinary configuration of the dermal ridge arrangements and

the variance of pattern display indicates an elevated mental manifestation.

Click here for statistical data on male NCIC FPC frequencies.

Click here for statistical data on female NCIC FPC frequencies.

Malcolm X – NCIC FPC

Click here for the fingerprints of Malcolm X.

                                                                                       Copyright © Andres J. Washington